Antonio Begarelli (called by Vasari, Begarino). This artist is not introduced here as a painter, but rather as a designer and modeller, whose works may rank with those of contemporary painters, with whom he seems to have been in close connection. He was born at Modena, about the year 1498, and is said to have been instructed by Giovanni dell' Abbate, the father of the painter Niccolò. Begarelli worked chiefly at Modena, where many churches are decorated with his plastic compositions in terra-cotta; and in his later years also at Parma. These are free standing figures, nearly life-size, grouped together above altars in the chapels, and apparently intended to replace pictures. This peculiar adaptation of plastic works was first used at Modena by Guido Mazzoni (died 1518), called II Modanino, a highly gifted artist of realistic tendencies. They form a specialty of Modenese art. The assertion that Begarelli was associated with Correggio seems to be incorrect. It has been supposed (by Vidriani, 1652), that Begarelli made the models from which Correggio painted many of his floating figures, and even instructed his friend in the art of modelling. Begarelli's figures have a far closer resemblance to those of the Perrarese painter Garofalo than to those of Correggio. They have the same types as the former used, and his draperies are similarly arranged. Whilst Mazzoni's terra-cotta figures are painted in variegated colours, Begarelli painted them entirely in white. Vasari relates that "Michelangelo, when passing through Modena, saw many beautiful figures which the Modenese sculptor, Maestro Antonio Begarino, had made of terra-cotta, coloured to look like marble, which appeared to him to be most excellent productions; and, as that sculptor did not know how to work in marble, he said, 'If this earth were to become marble, woe to the antiques.'" Begarelli died in 1565.