Reservoir Dogs is a 1992 American crime film that depicts the events before and after a botched diamond heist, but not the heist itself. The film was the debut of director and writer Quentin Tarantino, and stars an ensemble cast—Harvey Keitel, Tim Roth, Chris Penn, Steve Buscemi, Lawrence Tierney, and Michael Madsen. Tarantino and criminal-turned-author Edward Bunker have minor roles. It incorporates many themes that have become Tarantino's hallmarks—violent crime, pop culture references, profuse profanity, and a nonlinear storyline. The film has become a classic of independent film and a cult hit. It was named "Greatest Independent Film of all Time" by Empire magazine. Reservoir Dogs was generally well received, and the cast was praised by many critics. Although it was not given much promotion upon release, the film became a modest success in the United States after grossing $2,832,029, recouping its $1.2 million budget. The film was more successful in the United Kingdom, grossing nearly £6.5 million, and it achieved higher popularity after the success of Tarantino's next directorial effort, Pulp Fiction. A soundtrack titled Reservoir Dogs: The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released featuring songs used in the film, which are mostly from the 1970s.